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Glossary Results

Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation (Transplant)

A treatment that uses healthy donor stem cells to restore a patient’s marrow and blood cells. It uses high doses of chemotherapy and sometimes radiation to “turn off” a patient’s immune system so that the donor cells are not rejected. See the free LLS publication, Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation.

Reduced-Intensity Stem Cell Transplantation

A type of allogeneic transplantation. Patients receive lower doses of chemotherapy drugs and/or radiation to prepare for a reduced-intensity transplant. This protocol may be safer than an allogeneic stem cell transplant–especially for older patients. See the free LLS publication, Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplantation

See Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation; Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation

Stem Cell Transplantation

See Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation; Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplantation

See Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation; Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation.

Nonmyeloablative Stem Cell Transplantation

See Reduced-Intensity Stem Cell Transplantation.

Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation

A treatment that uses a patient’s own stem cells to slow the growth of certain blood cancers. See the free LLS publication Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation.

Host

The recipient of the transplant who acts as "host" to the transplanted stem cells.

Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI)

A therapy often used for patients after an allogeneic bone marrow transplant. In this procedure, patients are given lymphocytes (white blood cells) that come from the original transplant donor to help attack remaining cancer cells.

Immune response

The reaction of the body to foreign material. Examples of foreign material are an infection-causing microorganism, a vaccine, or the cells of another person used for an allogeneic stem cell transplant.

Graft versus cancer effect

With an allogeneic stem cell transplant, the donated stem cells make immune cells that are not totally "matched" with the patient's cells. For this reason, the donor immune cells may recognize the patient's cancer cells as foreign and kills them.

Matched donor

A person whose major tissue types are identical to those of a patient who is seeking a stem cell transplant. The patient can be given the donor's healthy matched stem cells, which can restore blood and immune cells after high-intensity cancer treatment.

Haplotype

The tissue type contributed by either the mother or father to his or her offspring. It is implied that it represents the genes on one parental chromosome. When a transplant procedure is between a donor and recipient that are haplotype identical, it means that the tissue type or HLA type of each is identical in respect to mother or father but not identical to the other. In some situations, if the discrepancy is not too great, the transplant may still be possible if the underlying disease makes the risk of partial compatibility warranted. Conditioning of the recipient and lymphocyte depletion of the donor stem cell suspension are steps taken to mitigate the risk of immune cell activation by the tissue type differences.

Conditioning Treatment

Intensive therapy of a patient with cytotoxic drugs or drugs and total body radiation just before receiving a stem cell transplant. The therapy serves three purposes. First, it severely depresses the lymphocytes that are the key cells in the recipient's immune system. This action helps prevent the rejection of the graft. Second, it markedly decreases the marrow cells, which may be important to open up the special niches where the transplanted stem cells must lodge to engraft. Third, if the patient is being transplanted for a malignancy, this intensive therapy greatly decreases the numbers of any remaining tumor cells.

Autotransplant

See Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation

Graft-Versus-Tumor Effect (Graft-Versus-Leukemia Effect)

The potential immune reaction of transplanted (donor) T lymphocytes causing them to recognize and attack the cancer cells of the patient.

Engraftment

The process of transplanted stem cells homing to the recipient's marrow and producing blood cells of all types. This occurrence is first evident when new white cells, red cells, and platelets begin to appear in the recipient's blood following transplantation.

Cord Blood Stem Cells

Stem cells that are present in blood drained from the placenta and umbilical cord (the link that attaches a mom to a new baby). These stem cells have the capability to repopulate the marrow of a compatible recipient and produce blood cells. Frozen cord blood is a source of donor stem cells for transplantation to HLA-matched recipients. Most cord-blood transplants are given by either matched or nearly matched unrelated donors.

Haploidentical

A potential stem cell donor that has a 50 percent HLA antigen-match with a patient. Parents are haploidentical with children. Siblings have a 50 percent chance of being haploidentical. See HLA; Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Tolerance

A very important event in the long-term success of transplantation. After a time, usually a year or so, the prior host and donor T lymphocytes die off and new lymphocytes are formed from the donor?s engrafted stem cells. These "adapt" to the new host and stop attacking the recipient's cells. If tolerance is present, the immune system is no longer distracted and can serve the patient by working efficiently to protect against microbes. Risk of infection diminishes and approaches that of a healthy person. Immunosuppressive therapy can be stopped.

Voices of Transplant: Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplantation

Voices of Transplant: Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplantation Tuesday, March 18, 2014 6:00 - 8:00 p.m. St David's South Austin Medical Center Auditorium AB 901 W Ben White Blvd, Austin, TX Presenter: Paul J Shaughnessy, M.D. Texas Transplant Institute Program Director, Adult Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant Program This program will cover: The value of early referrel for bone marrow or stem cell transplantation Who is a candidate for bone marrow or ...

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Reduced-Intensity Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

Researchers are currently studying reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation in clinical trials. This type of transplant — sometimes called nonmyeloablative transplant — is a modified version of allogeneic transplantation. The chemotherapy or radiation dose is reduced, yet still high enough to suppress the immune system and enable graft versus tumor (GVT) effect in which the patient's new immune system (originating from the donated stem cells) may destroy the bulk of remaining cancer ...

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Stem Cell Transplantation

Stem cell transplantation, sometimes referred to as bone marrow transplant, is a procedure that replaces unhealthy blood-forming cells with healthy cells. Stem cell transplantation allows doctors to give large doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy to increase the chance of eliminating blood cancer in the marrow and then restoring normal blood cell production. Researchers continue to improve stem cell transplantation procedures, making them an option for more patients. The basis for ...

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Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation

To treat or cure your blood cancer, your doctor may suggest very high doses of chemotherapy and an autologous stem cell transplantation using your own stem cells.   How Does It Work? Your marrow is collected while you're in remission. You must first undergo conditioning therapy in the form of high-intensity chemotherapy or radiation to control the disease and decrease the number of cancer cells in your marrow and blood. Your own stem cells are "harvested," or retrieved, from y ...

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Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation involves transferring the stem cells from a healthy person (the donor) to your body after high-intensity chemotherapy or radiation. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is used to cure some patients who: Are at high risk of relapse Don't respond fully to treatment Relapse after prior successful treatment Allogeneic stem cell transplantation can be a high-risk procedure. The high-conditioning regimens are meant to severely or completely ...

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Glossary Results

Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation (Transplant)

A treatment that uses healthy donor stem cells to restore a patient’s marrow and blood cells. It uses high doses of chemotherapy and sometimes radiation to “turn off” a patient’s immune system so that the donor cells are not rejected. See the free LLS publication, Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation.

Reduced-Intensity Stem Cell Transplantation

A type of allogeneic transplantation. Patients receive lower doses of chemotherapy drugs and/or radiation to prepare for a reduced-intensity transplant. This protocol may be safer than an allogeneic stem cell transplant–especially for older patients. See the free LLS publication, Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplantation

See Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation; Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation

Stem Cell Transplantation

See Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation; Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplantation

See Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation; Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation.

Nonmyeloablative Stem Cell Transplantation

See Reduced-Intensity Stem Cell Transplantation.

Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation

A treatment that uses a patient’s own stem cells to slow the growth of certain blood cancers. See the free LLS publication Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation.

Host

The recipient of the transplant who acts as "host" to the transplanted stem cells.

Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI)

A therapy often used for patients after an allogeneic bone marrow transplant. In this procedure, patients are given lymphocytes (white blood cells) that come from the original transplant donor to help attack remaining cancer cells.

Immune response

The reaction of the body to foreign material. Examples of foreign material are an infection-causing microorganism, a vaccine, or the cells of another person used for an allogeneic stem cell transplant.

Graft versus cancer effect

With an allogeneic stem cell transplant, the donated stem cells make immune cells that are not totally "matched" with the patient's cells. For this reason, the donor immune cells may recognize the patient's cancer cells as foreign and kills them.

Matched donor

A person whose major tissue types are identical to those of a patient who is seeking a stem cell transplant. The patient can be given the donor's healthy matched stem cells, which can restore blood and immune cells after high-intensity cancer treatment.

Haplotype

The tissue type contributed by either the mother or father to his or her offspring. It is implied that it represents the genes on one parental chromosome. When a transplant procedure is between a donor and recipient that are haplotype identical, it means that the tissue type or HLA type of each is identical in respect to mother or father but not identical to the other. In some situations, if the discrepancy is not too great, the transplant may still be possible if the underlying disease makes the risk of partial compatibility warranted. Conditioning of the recipient and lymphocyte depletion of the donor stem cell suspension are steps taken to mitigate the risk of immune cell activation by the tissue type differences.

Conditioning Treatment

Intensive therapy of a patient with cytotoxic drugs or drugs and total body radiation just before receiving a stem cell transplant. The therapy serves three purposes. First, it severely depresses the lymphocytes that are the key cells in the recipient's immune system. This action helps prevent the rejection of the graft. Second, it markedly decreases the marrow cells, which may be important to open up the special niches where the transplanted stem cells must lodge to engraft. Third, if the patient is being transplanted for a malignancy, this intensive therapy greatly decreases the numbers of any remaining tumor cells.

Autotransplant

See Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation

Graft-Versus-Tumor Effect (Graft-Versus-Leukemia Effect)

The potential immune reaction of transplanted (donor) T lymphocytes causing them to recognize and attack the cancer cells of the patient.

Engraftment

The process of transplanted stem cells homing to the recipient's marrow and producing blood cells of all types. This occurrence is first evident when new white cells, red cells, and platelets begin to appear in the recipient's blood following transplantation.

Cord Blood Stem Cells

Stem cells that are present in blood drained from the placenta and umbilical cord (the link that attaches a mom to a new baby). These stem cells have the capability to repopulate the marrow of a compatible recipient and produce blood cells. Frozen cord blood is a source of donor stem cells for transplantation to HLA-matched recipients. Most cord-blood transplants are given by either matched or nearly matched unrelated donors.

Haploidentical

A potential stem cell donor that has a 50 percent HLA antigen-match with a patient. Parents are haploidentical with children. Siblings have a 50 percent chance of being haploidentical. See HLA; Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Tolerance

A very important event in the long-term success of transplantation. After a time, usually a year or so, the prior host and donor T lymphocytes die off and new lymphocytes are formed from the donor?s engrafted stem cells. These "adapt" to the new host and stop attacking the recipient's cells. If tolerance is present, the immune system is no longer distracted and can serve the patient by working efficiently to protect against microbes. Risk of infection diminishes and approaches that of a healthy person. Immunosuppressive therapy can be stopped.