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Glossary Results

Unclassified MDS (MDS-u)

A WHO MDS subtype classification that includes patients who do not have refractory anemia or other MDS subtypes, but have either neutropenia or thrombocytopenia with unusual features, such as marrow fibrosis. The number of blasts in the blood and bone marrow is not increased.

Myelodysplastic Syndromes

Cancer of the blood and marrow. It happens when the cells in the bone marrow are damaged. There are many different myelodysplastic syndromes.

5q- Syndrome (5q Minus Syndrome)

A World Health Organization term for a subtype of MDS that causes refractory (treatment-resistant) anemia. It affects about 20 to 30 percent of patients with MDS. This subtype causes refractory (treatmentresistant) anemia associated with a deletion of the long arm (q) of chromosome 5, designated “del(5q).”

Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation (RAEB-T)

In the French-American-British (FAB) classification, an MDS subtype in which the bone marrow blast count ranges from 20 to 30 percent

Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPNs)

A group of diseases that occur when certain types of blood cells are overproduced. Examples of MPNs are essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis. Some people with MPNs have abnormal-looking cells in their bone marrow that are similar to MDS cells.

Oligoblastic Myelogenous Leukemia

Also known as “refractory anemia excess blasts” (RAEB), this type of MDS shows signs of leukemic blast cells when the blood or marrow is examined. There may only be a small number of these blast cells in the marrow, but their presence indicates that leukemic cells are developing.

Refractory Anemia (RA)

Also known as “myelodysplasia,” this clonal myeloid disorder mostly affects red blood cell production in the marrow. It can also be associated with mild to moderate decreases in the numbers of white blood cells and platelets. In some classification systems, it is an MDS subtype.

Refractory Anemia with Ringed Sideroblasts (RARS)

This is a form of anemia where the bone marrow produces ringed sideroblasts rather than healthy red blood cells (erythrocytes). In the case of abnormal sideroblasts, large amounts of iron are trapped in the developing red cells in abnormal sites. Refractory anemia and RARS are often associated with mild to moderate decreases in the numbers of white blood cells and platelets. This disorder is also called “myelodysplasia” or “acquired sideroblastic anemia.” In some classifications, RARS is an MDS subclass. Also called “myelodysplasia” or “acquired sideroblastic anemia.”

Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia (RCMD)

One of the more common WHO MDS subtypes. There are too few of at least two types of blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets). In the bone marrow, those same types of cells look abnormal (dysplasia) under the microscope. Less than 5 percent of the cells in the bone marrow are blasts. In patients with more than 15 percent ringed sideroblasts, the subtype is called “RCMD-RS.”

From MDS to AML: What Every MDS Patient Needs to Know

November 28, 2017


The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society collaborated with Aplastic Anemia and MDS International Foundation (AAMDSIF) to bring you this webinar. It includes the latest information on the relationship between MDS and AML and information on the latest and emerging treatments. Over time, about one-third of all myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) cases evolve to become acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The risk of developing AML depends largely on the MDS ...

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Current and Emerging Therapies for Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)

April 7, 2017

Topics Covered We invite you to learn more about: How MDS is diagnosed Current and emerging treatments Clinical trials for MDS patients Improving quality of life for patients

  Speaker Mikkael A. Sekeres, MD, MS
Vice Chair for Clinical Research
Director, Leukemia Program
Professor of Medicine
Cleveland Clinic Cancer Center
Cleveland, OH ...

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MDS - Diagnosis and Treatment Update

March 12, 2013

Topics Covered Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) Diagnostic tests for MDS Factors used to develop a plan for treatment Current and emerging therapies for MDS Possible treatment side effects and management The role of clinical trials in the advancement of MDS treatment for patients Speaker Gail J. Roboz, MD
Director, Leukemia Program
Associate Professor of Medicine
Weill Medical College of Cornell University
NewYork-Pres ...

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MDS Subtypes

There are several kinds (subtypes) of MDS. Doctors classify MDS subtypes according to different factors. Doctors often use one of two systems to classify them: the French, American, British (FAB) classification system or World Health Organization (WHO) classification system. The classification of MDS has evolved considerably over the last several decades. In 1982, the French-American-British (FAB) Work Group devised a classification of MDS. In 2001, the World Health O ...

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MDS Group-Arlington Heights

The group will address specific issues related to a blood cancer diagnosis and will provide an opportunity for attendees to discuss concerns, anxieties, feelings related to illness, treatment and other related issues. The meetings are designed to provide mutual support and education to members by meeting with others whose situations are similar to their own. They are a resource to support coping, in conjunction with your or a loved one's medical treatment.

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Glossary Results

Unclassified MDS (MDS-u)

A WHO MDS subtype classification that includes patients who do not have refractory anemia or other MDS subtypes, but have either neutropenia or thrombocytopenia with unusual features, such as marrow fibrosis. The number of blasts in the blood and bone marrow is not increased.

Myelodysplastic Syndromes

Cancer of the blood and marrow. It happens when the cells in the bone marrow are damaged. There are many different myelodysplastic syndromes.

5q- Syndrome (5q Minus Syndrome)

A World Health Organization term for a subtype of MDS that causes refractory (treatment-resistant) anemia. It affects about 20 to 30 percent of patients with MDS. This subtype causes refractory (treatmentresistant) anemia associated with a deletion of the long arm (q) of chromosome 5, designated “del(5q).”

Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation (RAEB-T)

In the French-American-British (FAB) classification, an MDS subtype in which the bone marrow blast count ranges from 20 to 30 percent

Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPNs)

A group of diseases that occur when certain types of blood cells are overproduced. Examples of MPNs are essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis. Some people with MPNs have abnormal-looking cells in their bone marrow that are similar to MDS cells.

Oligoblastic Myelogenous Leukemia

Also known as “refractory anemia excess blasts” (RAEB), this type of MDS shows signs of leukemic blast cells when the blood or marrow is examined. There may only be a small number of these blast cells in the marrow, but their presence indicates that leukemic cells are developing.

Refractory Anemia (RA)

Also known as “myelodysplasia,” this clonal myeloid disorder mostly affects red blood cell production in the marrow. It can also be associated with mild to moderate decreases in the numbers of white blood cells and platelets. In some classification systems, it is an MDS subtype.

Refractory Anemia with Ringed Sideroblasts (RARS)

This is a form of anemia where the bone marrow produces ringed sideroblasts rather than healthy red blood cells (erythrocytes). In the case of abnormal sideroblasts, large amounts of iron are trapped in the developing red cells in abnormal sites. Refractory anemia and RARS are often associated with mild to moderate decreases in the numbers of white blood cells and platelets. This disorder is also called “myelodysplasia” or “acquired sideroblastic anemia.” In some classifications, RARS is an MDS subclass. Also called “myelodysplasia” or “acquired sideroblastic anemia.”

Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia (RCMD)

One of the more common WHO MDS subtypes. There are too few of at least two types of blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets). In the bone marrow, those same types of cells look abnormal (dysplasia) under the microscope. Less than 5 percent of the cells in the bone marrow are blasts. In patients with more than 15 percent ringed sideroblasts, the subtype is called “RCMD-RS.”