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Glossary Results

Relapsed CLL

CLL that responded to treatment but then returns.

Refractory CLL

CLL that has not responded to initial treatment. Refractory disease may be disease that is getting worse or staying the same (stable disease).

CD38

An antigen on CLL cells and other cells. The expression of CD38 may be a marker to assist in predicting CLL progression.

Richter transformation

In a small number of patients, there is a progression in their disease. In these patients, CLL takes on the characteristics of an aggressive lymphoma. This change is not a second cancer, but a transformation of the CLL cells.

Small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL)

A disease with symptoms and treatment that are much like CLL. SLL starts in a lymphocyte in a lymph node. CLL starts in a lymphocyte in the marrow.

Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Region (IgHv) Gene Status

A marker that can distinguish between CLL subtypes (unmutated IgHv and mutated IgHv). People with CLL with unmutated IgHv gene status may have a more progressive form of the disease.

Zap-70

An abbreviation for the cell protein “zeta-associated protein 70.” A high level of ZAP-70 expression on the cells of patients with B-cell CLL is one of several factors that may predict more progressive disease. Outside of a research laboratory this test is generally not very reliable and should not be used.

Treatment Outcomes

In recent years, the Food and Drug Administration has approved new therapies for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Researchers are studying other possible new treatments in clinical trials. Some studies suggest that newer treatment combinations and approaches may improve survival length. Treatment outcomes are influenced by several factors, including but not limited to: The disease's stage The presence or lack of certain factors associated with higher-risk disease Your a ...

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Related Diseases

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) shares some similar features and symptoms with other closely related types of leukemia. They all have one thing in common: They begin in a lymphocyte that becomes cancerous and accumulates in the blood, bone marrow or spleen. The diseases represent a range of clinical severity. At one end of the range, there are the diseases that may be stable and may not advance in severity for some months or years, or occasionally indefinitely. At the other end of the ...

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Relapsed and Refractory

Some patients still have leukemia cells in their bone marrow after CLL treatment. This is called refractory leukemia. Some patients have a return of CLL cells in the marrow and a decrease in normal blood cells after remission. This is called a relapse. The following are treatments for patients with refractory and relapsed CLL. For more information, access the free booklet, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Ibrutinib (ImbruvicaTM) Idelalisib (Zydelig®) Ofatumumab (Ar ...

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Clinical Trials

Taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice for some chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. Clinical trials are under way to improve remission rates for CLL. Today's standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier clinical trials. The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society continues to invest funds in CLL research. Click here to read more about clinical trials.   Current CLL Research and Clinical Trials Below are some of the types of resear ...

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Glossary Results

Relapsed CLL

CLL that responded to treatment but then returns.

Refractory CLL

CLL that has not responded to initial treatment. Refractory disease may be disease that is getting worse or staying the same (stable disease).

CD38

An antigen on CLL cells and other cells. The expression of CD38 may be a marker to assist in predicting CLL progression.

Richter transformation

In a small number of patients, there is a progression in their disease. In these patients, CLL takes on the characteristics of an aggressive lymphoma. This change is not a second cancer, but a transformation of the CLL cells.

Small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL)

A disease with symptoms and treatment that are much like CLL. SLL starts in a lymphocyte in a lymph node. CLL starts in a lymphocyte in the marrow.

Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Region (IgHv) Gene Status

A marker that can distinguish between CLL subtypes (unmutated IgHv and mutated IgHv). People with CLL with unmutated IgHv gene status may have a more progressive form of the disease.

Zap-70

An abbreviation for the cell protein “zeta-associated protein 70.” A high level of ZAP-70 expression on the cells of patients with B-cell CLL is one of several factors that may predict more progressive disease. Outside of a research laboratory this test is generally not very reliable and should not be used.